Intravenous Pyelography (IVP, Excretory Urography)

Chapter XVII

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While it is not necessary for you to understand every detail of these complex interactions, it is important to understand the science of what is happening in your body and mind when your stress response is activated. Disodium Oleamide or Dioctyl Sulfosuccinate The hypothalamus also delivers a message to the endocrine system to initiate the secretion of hormones. The main components of frankincense oil are ketonic alcohol olibanol , resinous matters 30 to 60 percent and terpenes such as a-and p-pinene, camphene, dipentene and phellandrene. It is also called Hyperarousal or Acute Stress Response.

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Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the capillaries, into the alveoli, into the thin layer of water, and then quickly exits into the air. The end result is that oxygen is taken out of the air and enters the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide is removed from the blood and released into the air.

It is important that only a very thin layer of water coats the alveoli. If the alveoli begin to fill up with water, three problems occur. First, the large volume of water would require much more oxygen in order to reach saturation of the larger volume. Saturating the large volume takes time and slows oxygen transfer. Second, the oxygen and carbon dioxide would have further to travel across the water to reach the alveolar wall. This further slows the transfer of gases to and from the blood.

Third, the surface area would be reduced as the surface area of the alveoli becomes covered by a thick layer of water. The surface area of the water has now become the effective surface area of the lung. For these reasons, excess water in the lungs creates a barrier to oxygen uptake and can cause drowning.

To review, humans need a large surface area for gas exchange and need to easily transfer gases between the blood and the air.

Specialized structures in the lungs called alveoli dramatically increase the surface area of the lung and the dense capillary network around the alveoli creates a very short route between the bloodstream and the air. A very thin film of water coating the alveoli allows oxygen and carbon dioxide to instantly transition between dissolved and gaseous forms, thereby facilitating the uptake of oxygen and the release of carbon dioxide.

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By creating an account, you agree to Study. Explore over 4, video courses. Find a degree that fits your goals. Gas Exchange in the Human Respiratory System Did you know that the average human lung has a respiratory surface area that is roughly the same size as half of a tennis court? Believe it or not, that's how much surface area an active, healthy human needs to ensure that the body gets plenty of oxygen. Try it risk-free for 30 days. An error occurred trying to load this video.

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How Ventilation is Regulated. How Our Lungs Work: Medical Specialists of the Respiratory System. What Is the Immune System? The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract. Medical Specialists of the Nervous System: The Human Vascular System. What Are Pulmonary Function Tests? Gross Anatomy of the Airway and Lungs: Life, Physical and Chemical. Practice and Study Guide. Jeff Calareso Jeff teaches high school English, math and other subjects.

Did you know that the average human lung has a respiratory surface area that is roughly the same size as half of a tennis court? Why Doesn't the Skin Absorb Oxygen? Parts of the Respiratory System The trachea splits into the bronchi So, let's start at the beginning. The Alveoli And finally, at the ends of the smallest bronchioles are clusters of spherical structures that look a lot like bunches of grapes.

Alveoli clusters create a honeycomb-like structure The average human lung has about million alveoli with a combined inner surface area that is about the same size as half of a full-size tennis court.

How Blood Becomes Oxygenated The blood collects oxygen from the alveoli as it passes over the entire surface area, created by the alveolar walls. Try it risk-free No obligation, cancel anytime. Want to learn more? Select a subject to preview related courses: Oxygen passes through barriers to get to the blood Problems of Liquid in Alveoli It is important that only a very thin layer of water coats the alveoli.

Lesson Summary To review, humans need a large surface area for gas exchange and need to easily transfer gases between the blood and the air.

Learning Outcomes When you are done, you should be able to: Identify the parts of the respiratory system Describe the alveoli and their role in transferring oxygen to the bloodstream Explain how blood becomes oxygenated Discuss what would happen if the alveoli filled up with water.

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Take quizzes and exams. TRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release thyroid-stimulating hormone. GnRH stimulates the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone while CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone.

The last two hormones—oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone—are produced by the hypothalamus and transported to the posterior pituitary, where they are stored and later released. The pituitary gland , also known as the hypophysis, is a small pea-sized lump of tissue connected to the inferior portion of the hypothalamus of the brain. Many blood vessels surround the pituitary gland to carry the hormones it releases throughout the body.

Situated in a small depression in the sphenoid bone called the sella turcica, the pituitary gland is actually made of 2 completely separate structures: The posterior pituitary gland is actually not glandular tissue at all, but nervous tissue instead.

The posterior pituitary is a small extension of the hypothalamus through which the axons of some of the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus extend. These neurosecretory cells create 2 hormones in the hypothalamus that are stored and released by the posterior pituitary:. The anterior pituitary gland is the true glandular part of the pituitary gland. The function of the anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the releasing and inhibiting hormones of the hypothalamus.

The anterior pituitary produces 6 important hormones:. The pineal gland is a small pinecone-shaped mass of glandular tissue found just posterior to the thalamus of the brain.

The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin that helps to regulate the human sleep-wake cycle known as the circadian rhythm. The activity of the pineal gland is inhibited by stimulation from the photoreceptors of the retina. This light sensitivity causes melatonin to be produced only in low light or darkness. Increased melatonin production causes humans to feel drowsy at nighttime when the pineal gland is active. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the neck and wrapped around the lateral sides of the trachea.

The thyroid gland produces 3 major hormones:. Calcitonin is released when calcium ion levels in the blood rise above a certain set point. Calcitonin functions to reduce the concentration of calcium ions in the blood by aiding the absorption of calcium into the matrix of bones.

Increased levels of T3 and T4 lead to increased cellular activity and energy usage in the body. The parathyroid glands are 4 small masses of glandular tissue found on the posterior side of the thyroid gland. The parathyroid glands produce the hormone parathyroid hormone PTH , which is involved in calcium ion homeostasis.

PTH is released from the parathyroid glands when calcium ion levels in the blood drop below a set point. PTH stimulates the osteoclasts to break down the calcium containing bone matrix to release free calcium ions into the bloodstream.

PTH also triggers the kidneys to return calcium ions filtered out of the blood back to the bloodstream so that it is conserved.

The adrenal glands are a pair of roughly triangular glands found immediately superior to the kidneys. The adrenal glands are each made of 2 distinct layers, each with their own unique functions: The adrenal cortex produces many cortical hormones in 3 classes: The adrenal medulla produces the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine under stimulation by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system.

These hormones also work to increase heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure while decreasing the flow of blood to and function of organs that are not involved in responding to emergencies.

The pancreas is a large gland located in the abdominal cavity just inferior and posterior to the stomach. The pancreas is considered to be a heterocrine gland as it contains both endocrine and exocrine tissue. Within these islets are 2 types of cells—alpha and beta cells. The alpha cells produce the hormone glucagon, which is responsible for raising blood glucose levels.

Glucagon triggers muscle and liver cells to break down the polysaccharide glycogen to release glucose into the bloodstream. The beta cells produce the hormone insulin, which is responsible for lowering blood glucose levels after a meal. Insulin triggers the absorption of glucose from the blood into cells, where it is added to glycogen molecules for storage. The gonads—ovaries in females and testes in males—are responsible for producing the sex hormones of the body.

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