Vitamin B12

Health Topics

How Your Body Gets Nutrients From Foods
It may likewise affect embryo membrane permeability and hatch-ability of fish eggs. Fruits, vegetables, bread, pasta, grains, cereal products, crackers, dried beans, peas, and lentils are all good sources of carbohydrates. Division 4—Determining amounts of adjustments. Eating a wide range of foods that include a variety of nutrients is the easiest way to have a healthy diet. See also the water quality objectives for Basin water resources in Part 3 of Chapter 9.

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The 6 Essential Nutrients

Adequate hydration keeps things flowing along your gastrointestinal tract and prevents constipation. When you don't get enough fluid, the colon pulls water from stools to maintain hydration -- and the result is constipation.

If you think you need to be drinking more, here are some tips to increase your fluid intake and reap the benefits of water:. Video Transcript An, R. It sounds too good to be true. Just drinking more water can help you lose weight.

But that's what researchers found. You'll also benefit from a drop in saturated fat, sugar, sodium, and cholesterol. One extra cup of H2O in a day will save you 68 calories. And you don't have to do this every day to get the savings. Drink three extra cups, and you'll cut your calorie intake by To put it in perspective, that's as many calories as you'd burn if you walked two and a half miles.

Now, you can't just lie around on the couch all day and chug a gallon of water instead. You still need to keep up those healthy habits. And no word on what happens if you drink more than three cups, except for spending a lot of time in the bathroom. And this doesn't mean you can eat more, just that you're more likely to eat less.

But that walk to the water cooler gets you a lot further than you thought. Continued "Alcohol interferes with the brain and kidney communication and causes excess excretion of fluids which can then lead to dehydration ," he says. Have a beverage with every snack and meal. Choose beverages you enjoy; you're likely to drink more liquids if you like the way they taste.

Protein is broken down into amino acids, which are building blocks of protein. Nine of the 20 amino acids, known as essential amino acids, must be provided in the diet as they cannot be synthesized in the body. Ten to 35 percent of your daily calories should come from lean protein sources such as low-fat meat, dairy, beans or eggs.

Fat is an energy source that when consumed, increases the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins including vitamins A, D, E and K. Twenty to 35 percent of your daily intake should come from fat.

Choose healthy options such as omegarich foods like fish, walnuts and vegetable-based oils. Omega-3s help with development and growth. Limit intake of saturated fats such as high-fat meats and full-fat dairy. Other smart choices include nuts, seeds and avocado. Vitamin C is necessary for the synthesis of collagen, which provides structure to blood vessels, bone and ligaments. Rich sources include citrus fruits, strawberries and peppers. Folate, found in foods, helps to prevent birth defects.

Pregnant women or women who plan to become pregnant should speak with their physician about taking a folic acid supplement, the synthetic form of folate, in addition to their diet. Vitamin D helps to maintain calcium homeostasis. It can be found in food sources or synthesized by the sun. Sodium helps to maintain fluid volume outside of the cells and helps cells to function normally. Foods in nutrient-dense forms contain essential vitamins and minerals and also dietary fiber and other naturally occurring substances that may have positive health effects.

In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements may be useful in providing one or more nutrients that otherwise may be consumed in less-than-recommended amounts.

For more information about building a healthy diet, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the U. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate. This fact sheet by the Office of Dietary Supplements ODS provides information that should not take the place of medical advice.

We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc. Any mention in this publication of a specific product or service, or recommendation from an organization or professional society, does not represent an endorsement by ODS of that product, service, or expert advice. August 22, History of changes to this fact sheet. Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements.

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Cobalamin, the stomach, and aging. Malabsorption of food cobalamin. Baillieres Clin Haematol ;8: Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci ; The effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on older veterans and its relationship to health. J Am Geriatr Soc ; Neurological aspects of cobalamin deficiency.

Folate, vitamin B12, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid in diagnosis and risk assessment from infancy to adolescent. Adverse effects of increased dietary folate. Relation to measures to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. Clin Invest Med ; Gastric acidity in older adults. J Am Med Assoc ; Atrophic gastritis in the aged.

Australas Ann Med ; Prevalence of endoscopic and histological findings in subjects with and without dyspepsia. Br Med J ; Fundic atrophic gastritis in an elderly population: Effect on hemoglobin and several serum nutritional indicators. Prevalence of undiagnosed pernicious anemia in the elderly. Arch Intern Med ; Reversal of protein-bound vitamin B12 malabsorption with antibiotics in atrophic gastritis.

Diagnosis and management of clinical and subclinical cobalamin deficiency: Curr Hematol Rep ;5: Elevated methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine levels show high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency after gastric surgery. Ann Intern Med ; Are vitamin B12 and folate deficiency clinically important after roux-en-Y gastric bypass? J Gastrointest Surg ;2: Impaired assimilation of egg Co 57 vitamin B 12 in patients with hypochlorhydria and achlorhydria and after gastric resection. Persistence of neurological damage induced by dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy.

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Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision Plasma homocyst e ine and arterial occlusive diseases: Association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and extracranial carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med ; Folate and vitamin B6 from diet and supplements in relation to risk of coronary heart disease among women. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease. Annu Rev Med ; A newly recognized risk factor for vascular disease.

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